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The Islamic conquests reached their peak in the mid-eighth century. The defeat of Muslim forces at the in 732 led to the reconquest of southern France by the Franks, but the main reason for the halt of Islamic growth in Europe was the overthrow of the and its replacement by the . The Abbasids moved their capital to and were more concerned with the Middle East than Europe, losing control of sections of the Muslim lands. Umayyad descendants took over the Iberian Peninsula, the controlled North Africa, and the became rulers of Egypt. By the middle of the 8th century, new trading patterns were emerging in the Mediterranean; trade between the Franks and the Arabs replaced the old . Franks traded timber, furs, swords and slaves in return for silks and other fabrics, spices, and precious metals from the Arabs.
She was preceded by the Empress Anna. - M. Brown.
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