Finland Semi Presidentialism To Parliamentarism Politics Essay
As well the role of political parties is ..
In his work Etupiirin ote, the scholar, writer and former ambassador Alpo Rusi provides an interesting and polemical analysis of Finland’s foreign and security policies, particularly with regard to its neighbour, Russia / the Soviet Union. His premise is that from the 18th century onward Finland has, sometimes more broadly, sometimes more narrowly, formed part of the Russian sphere of influence. He gives a brief account of the end of the period of Swedish rule (until 1809) and that of Russian rule (1809-1917), as well as of the early decades of Finnish independence. The main emphasis of the book is on the period beginning with the Second World War. Rusi has a personal perspective on much recent history. He bases his evaluations on many diverse, sometimes controversial, sources and expresses strong opinions in his account, for example, of ‘Finlandisation’, Soviet influence on Finnish politics with its negative side effects. Rusi strongly criticises decision-makers who, as late as the 1980s and 1990s, believed in the desirability of trade with the east and the permanence of the Soviet Union, despite signals to the contrary. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Finland joined the European Union, but even as a member its attitudes towards, for example, Nato and Russia, have been problematic in many ways. Rusi ends his book on the theme of the Ukraine crisis, presenting his own proposal for the development of foreign and security policies.
The History Of Women In Politics Politics ..
Description : Finland's modern, technologically advanced welfare state is, in fact, a fairly recent creation, because the social changes that led to it occurred in Finland much later than elsewhere in the West. Once underway, however, such changes took place with unprecedented speed. This book is the story of what happens to parties, governments and voters when the fundamental features that conditioned party formation and voter alignments undergo rapid change. It is this that makes the Finnish case interesting and, as far as possible, this book examines Finland in a comparative perspective. Karvonen's study is based on a wealth of new primary evidence. It demonstrates that Finland is indeed a special case in certain respects, especially when it comes to the attenuation of ideological rivalry and the recurrent waves of populist protest. "This is an outstanding analysis of the political and social history of Finland since it gained independence from Russia in 1917. Supported by ample empirical data, Lauri Karvonen explains the 'late-but-rapid-syndrome' and why Finland, as a former part of Sweden and of Russia, has been a special case in a comparative Nordic and European perspective." Stein Kuhnle, University of Bergen "There remains a great deal of interest in the Nordic or Scandinavian political 'model' these days, but this interest usually focuses on Sweden or, possibly, Norway and Denmark. The politics and policies of Finland, which in fact present a fascinating case for study, are too often left out. This is due in good part to the absence of an up-to-date, comprehensive analysis of Finland. Fortunately, with the arrival of Professor Karvonen's latest book, this is no longer the case. This excellent volume will be of great interest and use to both specialists and comparativists and, indeed, to interested citizens." Henry Milner, University of Montreal