Essays on the Materialistic Conception of History: …
essay The Materialist Conception of History for his ..
As a result of the elaboration and application of these principles, the chief deficiencies in preceding historical and sociological theories were overcome: in particular, idealism in the conception of history and disregard for the creative role of the masses of people in history. As a result it was possible to substitute a scientific theory of social development for abstract philosophical and historical schemas. “People make their own history, but what determines the motives of people, of the mass of people, that is, what gives rise to the clash of conflicting ideas and strivings? What is the sum total of all these clashes in the mass of human societies? What are the objective conditions of production of material life that form the basis of all of man’s historical activity? What is the law of development of these conditions? To all these Marx drew attention and indicated the way to scientific study of history as a single process which, with all its immense variety and contradictoriness, is governed by definite laws” (Lenin, , vol. 26, p. 58). Historical materialism constitutes the theoretical and methodological basis for every sphere of scientific social science, whether it be historical science, political economy, law, the theory of art, or another social science.
Essay on the Theory of Historical Materialism
Socialism is the first phase of a new socioeconomic formation, in which exploitation is eliminated but the distinctions between different working classes and social groups still remain, a phase within which the conditions are prepared for the passage to a socially homogeneous classless society, that is, to the higher phase of communism. This transition comes about gradually on the basis of the conscious, planned utilization of the laws of social development, on the basis of the solidarity and collaboration of all classes and social groups, with the working class maintaining its leading role. In this process the socialist state becomes the state of all the people. With socialism begins a new era in human history, in which the conditions for conscious regulation by human beings of their social relations are gradually built up—conditions in which social relations come under the control of society, in which the harmonious development of the individual becomes possible, and in which the entire mass of the working people is drawn into the conscious process of making history. The scientific conception of historical development that is found in historical materialism serves as a foundation for working out social ideals as spiritual values in the new society, the basis for which was laid by the Great October Socalist revolution in Russia. This revolution heralded the coming of the revolutionary epoch, the transition from capitalism to socialism on a world scale.